Scientists have claimed that the Biblical plagues that had devastated Ancient Egypt were a result of volcanic eruption and global warming. Modern researchers feel they have found evidences for these natural disasters based on which the ten plagues of Egypt happened. The Ten Plagues of Egypt led Moses freeing the Israelites from their slavery as depicted in the book of Exodus. But unlike the Bible scientists do not think these were the wrathful act of God. Scientists feel these were caused by a natural chain of phenomenon. The plagues were triggered by some climatic and environmental changes that happened hundreds of miles away.
There are various evidences that explain the logical reasons for the plagues of Egypt. The plagues happened in the ancient Egyptian city of Pi-Rameses along the Nile Delta. Pi-Rameses was the capital of Egypt during the reign of Rameses II who ruled between 1279-13 BC. This city was abandoned about 3,000 years ago and the plagues were the reason. Climatologists studying the ancient climactic trends have reported a sharp shift in the climate of the area towards the end of Rameses IIs reign.
Researchers have studied the stalagmites found in the Egyptian caves to rebuild the weather patterns. They used radioactive elements which the rocks contained. They claimed that Rameses IIs reign started with warm and wet climate but towards the end of his reign the climate switched to a dry period. Some researchers feel Rameses II reigned during a very unfavourable climactic period. There was a period in Egypt which had adverse consequences. The change in climate was the root cause of the first plague. The rising temperatures led the Nile to dry up. Nile turned from a fast flowing river providing essential lifeline to Egypt to a slow moving and muddy watercourse.
These were perfect conditions for the arrival of the first plague. The first plague is described in the Bible with the water turning into blood. This is the description for toxic fresh water algae. This bacterium also known as Burgundy Blood algae has existed for over 3,000 years and still causes the similar effects. This algae multiples drastically in slow moving warm water streams which provide it with high levels of nutrition. When these algae die they live a red stain in water. The scientists feel these algae were also contributors to the second, third and fourth plagues of Egypt. Nile was breeding places for flies, lice and frogs. Frogs developed from tadpoles and their speed of growth was very quick. Arrival of toxic algae forced the frogs to live out of water. As these frogs died mosquitoes, flies and various other insects flourished without existence of any predators. This led to the fifth and sixth plagues where the livestock was diseased. With the increase in insects there was rise of various epidemics such as malaria and others. This caused a large number of human beings falling ill.
Another major natural disaster that happened more than 400 miles away were also triggering factors for the seventh, eighth and ninth plagues which brought hail, locusts and darkness to Egypt. One of the biggest volcanic eruptions in human history happened when Thera, which is a volcano in the Mediterranean islands of Santorini (North of Crete), exploded spewing billions of tons of volcanic ash into the atmosphere. It is believed that volcanic ash clashed with the thunderstorms converting them into hailstorms. The locusts were also a result of the volcanic ash. Ash caused weather change with high precipitation and higher humidity. These are exact conditions needed for presence of locusts. The volcanic ash was so heavy that it blocked the sunlight causing the stories about plague of darkness. Recently scientists have discovered pumice (which is a stone made after cooling of volcanic lava) though there are no volcanoes in Egypt. Closer analysis of the rock shows that it came from Santorini volcano. This provides evidence that ash fallout from the eruption at Santorini could easily reach Egypt.
Cause of the final plague where the first borns of Egypt died has been suggested to be caused by a fungus that poisoned the grain supplies. These supplies would be provided to the male first borns and they were the first to fall victims.