Was Judas a Betrayer After All?

The name of Judas has been associated with betrayal. He was one of the twelve close disciples of Jesus Christ and as the story goes he betrayed his teacher for 30 pieces of silver. Judas is considered as one of the worst villains that tread on this Earth. According to the New English Bible “Alas for that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed. It would be better for that man if he had never been born”. Other Biblical writings sight the reason for his betrayal as the lust for money or Satan’s influence upon him or because of his love for the country where he felt that Jesus let them down. The Biblical stories claim that Judas conspired with the High Priest in exchange for money to lead the way to Jesus’ hide out and revealed the identity of Jesus with a kiss. This kiss is also known as the kiss of death and one that symbolises betrayal to the highest extent. But was Judas Iscariot really a villain as bad as described in the Biblical accounts?

Judas Kisses Jesus to Betray Him

The Gospel of Judas which is a Coptic language Codex found in the 1970s in Egypt revealed a series of conversations between Judas and Jesus. This Gospel throws a different light on Judas. This text had been hidden for long in fear of it being destroyed by the fanatics. According to this Gospel Judas was not a betrayer, he rather followed the orders of his master by delivering Jesus to the authorities that led to his cruxification. The document states how Jesus planned the course of events that would finally lead to his death. It is an intimate discussion with between the master and his most obedient and best disciple. Jesus wanted to shred off his earthly body and tread in heaven over again. He also wanted to pay for the rising sins of the worshippers, thus he took help from his best disciple Judas Iscariot. Many scholars had raised doubts in the past as to why Judas who has been defined in many writings as the best and closest disciple of Jesus would suddenly betray him. The Gospel tells the readers at the frustration Jesus had with all the other disciples.

A Page from the Gospel of Judas

According the Gospel of Judas, Jesus tells Judas that he has failed in teaching the true meanings to other disciples for they still engage in worldly rituals such as sacrificing animal to suffice the gods. Other disciples do not understand the meaning between soul and body. He praises Judas as “you will exceed all of them. For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me. Already your horn has been raised, your wrath has been kindled, your star has shone brightly, and your heart has been hardened”. Judas knew what would follow his apparent betrayal. But he was the chosen one. He was the bravest and strongest among all the disciples and thus he was provided with the task of handing Jesus over to the Romans. Scholars feel that the ancients had mistranslated the word handing over to betrayal. In this Gospel, Jesus tells Judas “You shall be cursed for generations” and still Judas decides to undertake the infamous task.

Judas Hangs Himself After Cruxification of Christ

Though some scholars feel it was written by Judas himself after the death of Jesus, but there are others that state the text was actually written by one of the close associates of Judas. The radiocarbon dating conducted on the pages provides evidence that the text was written sometimes during or just after the period in which Jesus lived and died.

Some scholars have also opined that Judas was a righteous and scholarly person. Other disciples conspired against him as they were jealous of his closeness with the God son. Jesus used to take special sessions with Judas and he thought Judas to be the only disciple to have truly imbibed his teachings. According to the recent studies labelling Judas as a traitor was a huge hoax in history!

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Was Tutankhamun Murdered or Did He Die of Natural Causes?

Tutankhamun or King Tut was an Egyptian pharaoh belonging to the 18th dynasty. He was the youngest pharaoh and ruled for only 10 years. He died at the tender age of 18. Many records dating from Ancient Egypt claim Tutankhamun to be a righteous ruler with high future prospects. But his untimely death cut short the expectations of the people. He was mummified and buried according to the prevalent rituals in ancient Egypt. In 1922 the tomb of Tutankhamun was found with all its belongings nearly intact. In 2010 DNA test results confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten whose remains have also been found in a nearby tomb. As the King died at such a tender age under suspecting circumstances thus researchers started investigating the death of Tutankhamun.

Mask on the Coffin of King Tutenkhamun

There are many theories regarding the death of Tutankhamun and it has now become one of the much researched history’s mysteries. While some researchers believe he was murdered for the lust of power, others believe that he died due to a fall from the chariot or due to illness. Let us look through some of the theories:

Murder Theory

There are some evidences that point to a few servants close to Tutankhamun who might have been responsible for the murder of this king. Their motives might have been greed or power, may be they were not happy with the changing environment after the death of Akhenatan. Akhenatan brought about many changes during his time, one of these was pushing in the idea of one God. This made the priests in ancient Egypt towards him and his family. Akhenatan forced many priests to close their temples and worship this one god. Amidst this hostile environment Tutankhamun ascended the throne in such a hostile environment. As he was of tender age thus he was helped by many subjects notably Ay and Horemheb. As these two people were close to him, thus there are many conspiracy theories surrounding them.

Researchers taking a Close Look at the Remains of King Tut

  • Ay the Murderer Theory: King Tut was immensely dependant on Ay. He was one of the closest persons to the king. It is said that Ay had all the motives to kill Tutankhamen. By killing Tut he would be able to inherit the throne and become the next pharaoh of Egypt. In fact after King Tut died at the age of 18 Ay inherited the throne. The murder theory is further supported by a crack that was found at the base of King Tut’s skull. A ring was found in Cairo in 1931, this ring proved that Ankhesenamun (Tutankhamun’s wife) and Ay got married soon after the death of King Tut. Ankhesenamun was forced into the marriage, as some of the tablets found from this period show the Queen asking from the Hittites (enemies of Egypt) to save the throne of Tutankhamun. She was also dissatisfied with Ay’s bid to marry her as she writes”Never shall I pick out a servant of mine and make him my husband. I am afraid!” “Never shall I pick out a servant of mine and make him my husband. I am afraid!”
  • Horemheb the Murderer Theory: Horemheb was the king’s deputy and the young king used to take all the royal decisions after discussing them with him. As King Tut grew old and started taking his own decisions the influence of Horemheb was gradually fading. As the king had become independent and Horemheb’s aid was no longer needed thus he might have conspired against Tutankhamun by murdering him. He was also against the new thinking of one god propagated by Akhenaten. Though Horemheb did not get the throne immediately after the death of King Tut, but he became the pharaoh after the death of Ay. After becoming the pharaoh he returned to the original form of worship in Egypt. Many Egyptologist believe that Horemheb was a traditionalist and wanted to convert Tutankhamen in his line. But when the King grew up he had a similar thought as his father which frustrated Horemheb. During his reign Horemheb removed the name of King Tut from many places and replaced it with his own name. This shows the hatred that had found its place in the heart of Horemheb for King Tut.

Face of King Tutankhamun

Natural Causes for Death

Another group of Egyptologists and historians believe that there are not many evidences that prove Tutankhamun was murdered. They try to prove that he died of natural ailments. A group of forensic experts examining the body of King Tut came to conclusion that he might have died due to an infection. According to them the crack in the head might have been caused in the mummification or during the excavations itself. Another CT scan conducted on King Tut’s remains showed that he had a broken leg which might have caused his death. The researchers found a fracture on his left foot which might have happened a few days before the death of the king. Some scholars have concluded from these two findings that King Tut feel from the chariot in one of his hunting expeditions. This led to the fracture in his leg and was followed by the subsequent fracture (as there was no proper medication applied on the wounds).

It is hard to confirm the real cause of Tutankhamen’s death as so many years have passed by and so many speculations have been made.

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Mysteries that Surround Moai and Easter Islands

Statues known as the Moai (or living face of our ancestors) found on the Easter Island is definitely one of the leading history’s mysteries. Easter Islands is one of the remotest islands on Earth, it is situated 2,300 miles from the coast of Chile and 2500 miles from Tahiti. Even the closest island is about 1400 miles away. Easter Island is still uninhabited. In 1722 the Easter Islands was discovered by a Dutch captain and hence started the speculation. The Dutch found hundreds of giant statues that stood more than 30 feet tall and weighed many tons. Though the Dutch confronted a band of primitive settlers on the island but the statues were much advanced then the people themselves. This started the speculation as to how and who build these statues.

Easter Islands with Moai on the Shores

Some people have even given the credits of these Moai to the aliens. They have their own reasons too. According to the recent research and excavations it has been revealed that the Easter Islanders had an unique language and knew how to write. If we consider the vicinity of Easter Islands then the Americans did not know the art of writing as early as the times of the Moai, neither did the Polynesians, so who taught the Easter Islanders to write? Some researchers though feel that the Easter Islanders were expert seafarers and were able of travelling thousands of miles on their canoes. There are also theories that the statues were perhaps brought from Chile itself. But these theories can be debunked as there have been no signs of large ships found on the Island. The Moai were definitely built in the island itself. May be this was a form of art that was exclusive to the Easter Islanders.

Moai or Giant Stone Statues

Recent researches show that the statues were built near a stone mine and then they were transported to the centre of the Island near the edge of the volcano. Volcano was conceived to a path leading to the underworld and thus the natives wanted to keep it quite. Roughly 1,000 Moai present at Easter Islands can be divided into two groups – while some statues have large ears there are others that have small ears. Long eared statues were those that belonged to the ruling class while short eared were the earliest settlers and the working class. Some scholars also feel that the statues were erected to commemorate the reign of a certain ruler.  While others feel that building the statues with stones was a burial custom of the inhabitants.

How the Statues Might Have Been Sculpted

Another controversy has arisen with the placement of these statues. These statues were very heavy and fragile too. So how could the natives move it from the outer parts of the island to the centre? According a recently deciphered text the statues walked themselves. After years of research it has been confirmed that these statues were moved from one place to the other with the use of several large wooden logs. Entire population used to get at work in a bid to move these large objects.  The rocking motion of the statue moving has been mentioned as the statue walking.

In regards to the decline of such a well established civilization there have been many theories. But the leading theory states that the Easter Islanders lived happily and had many trees all through the island. But they rapidly cut the trees in order to move the statues and various other reasons. There came a stage when there were no trees left on the island.  The staple food of the islanders came from the sea, when they were not able to drive out into the sea they gradually became cannibals eating each other. Violence spread large on the islands. Some scholars also contribute a damaging tsunami or volcanic eruption for the demise of the inhabitants of Easter Islands.

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Shroud of Turin: Was it Jesus?

Shroud of Turin is a linen cloth that contains the image of a man having suffered severe physical trauma similar to people crucified. This controversial historical evidence about Jesus Christ is kept at the royal chapel in the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in Turin. Most of the scholars believe that this Shroud is associated with the cruxification and burial of Jesus Christ. The Catholic Church has kept numb on the issue neither refuting nor acclaiming the claims made. A negative image of the Shroud was taken by Secondo Pia in 1898. The black and white negative of the Shroud clearly showed the presence of a face in the Shroud. In 1978 a team of American scientists conducted tests on the Shroud and found no evidence of forgery in it and claimed that it was indeed the burial cloth used for the last rites of Jesus Christ. But in 1988 a radiocarbon dating was carried out which confirmed that the piece of cloth was from the Middle Ages, between 1260 and 1390. This led to the mystification about the Shroud of Turin.

The Shroud of Turin: Real Image (Left) & Black & White Negative (on right)

In the subsequent years till date there have been many research conducted on the Shroud of Turin. According to the new studies, the Radiocarbon 14 dating conducted on the Shroud was flawed as the samples were taken from inaccurate places. The latest research in the field has often come to the conclusion that the Shroud was made in first century Palestine (which would be close to the time when Jesus lived). In 2000 another burial shroud belonging to a high priest in Jerusalem was found it had the similar herringbone twill structure as the Shroud of Turin.

The Shroud of Turin has many stains that are similar to the bloodstains. While some have dismissed them as iron oxide which might have been used as pigments to make the cloth others have suggested that iron oxide is indeed a natural residue of haemoglobin. Further tests have also revealed the presence of porphyrin, albumin, bilirubin and proteins. Forensic pathologists have also opined that the blood group of the bloodstains found on the Shroud of Turin are AB.

Patterns Made on the Shroud of Turin

Another study conducted by Avinoam Danim suggests that the images of Chrysanthemum coronarium are flowers that bloom in the month of March or April in Palestine. This was roughly the time when Jesus Christ was crucified. When the samples of cloth were examined closely about 58 different types of pollen grains were found on the Shroud. Out of these 45 were from the Jerusalem area.

Anatomical studies of the Shroud have revealed that the person covered had a series traumatic injuries from the shoulder to the lower portion of the back which would have been caused due to constant whipping that Jesus Christ was subjected to, there are marks on the right shoulder that were caused due to carrying a heavy object such as the cross. The person in the Shroud had been whipped, wounded on the head by some pointed instrument and nailed after stretching the body to the farthest extremities. According to Giulio Fanti who is a professor of mechanical measurements “apart from the hands afterward placed on the pubic area, the front and back images are compatible with the Shroud being used to wrap the body of a man 175±2 cm tall, which, due to cadaveric rigidity, remained in the same position it would have assumed during crucifixion”.

Imaginary Painting of How Jesus Christ Might Have Been Covered by The Shroud

Image Analysis of the faint image found in the shroud reveal that the person had a beard, was injured on the forehead, had signs of trauma on his face and had shoulder long neatly parted hair. These are the descriptions that would fit in quite well with Jesus Christ.

Though there are so many evidences in favour of Shroud of Turin being authentic yet there are many sceptics sighting other instances. But most of researchers are of the opinion that Shroud of Turin is indeed the cloth that covered Jesus in his coffin and has his image.

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Historical Version of the Film “Gladiator”

Ridley Scott won many acclaims for his award winning movie Gladiator. The film according to him was a result of thorough research. Scott tried to present the facts of the Roman Empire back in those with his own psychological outlook. Many critics feel that in doing so Ridley Scott has gone further than most of the earlier film-makers who have de-constructed historical facts significantly for artistic sense. But does that mean the story of Gladiator is true in every aspect? Let us inspect:

Still from Ridley Scott's Film Gladiator

Reality of Maximus Decimus

This character shown in the movie was entirely fictional or may be considered a collage of characters during those times. In the film Maximus is portrayed as Maximus’ general and leads some expeditions. In true fact the name of this general was Avidius Cassius who led similar expeditions. He later declared himself as the emperor of Rome on hearing about the news of Marcus Aurelius’ death, but was assassinated by some soldiers under his command. Maximus in the film also resembles to the emperor Dioclethan who was born in the lower class family and became trusted as well as favourite bodyguard and later a general. The Emperor named him the heir to the throne and later he became an Emperor too. In Gladiator Commodus is seen killed in the arena by Maximus, but in reality he was murdered by a wrestler.

How was Marcus Aurelius?

Gladiator shows Marcus Aurelius as dutiful, virtuous, honest and family oriented man. In history Marcus Aurelius was an Emperor and reigned from 161-180 CE. He was also a philosopher. Some of his works such as The Mediations are great pieces of philosophy back in those times.

Statue of Commodus

Was Commodus Evil in Reality?

According to the history books Commodus was even more bizarre then depicted in the film. Commodus was proclaimed as a Caesar at the age of 5 and became joint emperor along side Augustus at the age of 17. He was not liked by Senate and was also ridiculed by the historians in their descriptions. Some historians wrote about Commodus’ reign as “our history now descends from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust, as affairs did for the Romans of that day.” Some historians accuse of Commodus being insane. He renamed months of the year by the titles held by him such as Aelius, Lucius, Aurelius, Commodus, Herculeus, etc. Under his reign the Senate was renamed as Commodian Fortune Senate and the Romans were renamed as Commodianus. According to historian Aelius Lampridius “Commodus lived, rioting in the palace amid banquets and in baths along with 300 concubines, gathered together for their beauty and chosen from both matrons and harlots… By his orders concubines were debauched before his own eyes, and he was not free from the disgrace of intimacy with young men, defiling every part of his body in dealings with persons of either sex.”

Was Marcus Aurelius Killed by Commodus?

As shown in the film Commodus enters into his father’s tent and murders him. Maybe he did so as he was present during the Caesar’s death and concluded a peace treaty with the enemies in quick time. But official records suggest Macus Aurelius died of plague.

Colosseum - Venue for Gladiator Fights in Past

Truth of Commodus Fighting in the Gladiator’s Arena

Yes, Commodus quite loved to fight within the arena with the Gladiators. But he never killed or severely wound anybody as the gladiators used to put down their arms after a tame fight. Not because he was a skilled fighter but because he was the Emperor. However, he did not die in the Gladiator’s fight. There were many plots to kill him and finally a wrestler named Narcissus murdered him when he in his bath.

Thus there are close resemblances in the well knit plot of Gladiator. But fiction also looms large.

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Has the Noah’s Ark Finally Been Found?

Most of us know the story surrounding Noah’s Ark. According to the Book of Genesis and Quran it is a vessel. As found in these narratives God instructed Noah to build a an ark to save himself, his family as well as all the world’s animals from the deluge of the Great Flood. Further the story says that when God saw wickedness of men he decided to cleanse the Earth. However, Noah was a righteous man and decided to spare him and his family along with many species of animals. Thus the ark was built. This narrative was considered to be a work of fiction in the earlier centuries. But research into the reality of Noah’s Ark started from late 1800s or early 1900s. Discovery of Noah’s Ark was considered one of history’s mysteries.

Recently a team of Turkish and Chinese explorers known as the Noah’s Ark Ministries International claimed to have found the remains of Noah’s Ark beneath snow and volcanic debris on Mount Ararat in Turkey. According to the team, they had found the seven large wooden compartments buried at 13,000 feet above sea level close to the peak of Mount Ararat. They returned back in 2009 to film a footage of their finding. Many Christians believe Mount Ararat to be the final resting place Noah’s Ark. It is mentioned in the Bible: “The ark rested . . . upon the mountains of Uratu” Genesis 8:4. Uratu is the Hebrew translation of Ararat. The structure discovered is partitioned into different spaces which are similar to the description of the Ark in Bible. Further, the radiocarbon dating of the wooden samples from the site suggests that the structure is about 4,800 years old, which would roughly coincide with the time frame of the Great Flood mentioned in the Bible.

Mount Ararat where the Lost Noah's Ark is Claimed to have been found

Though the Noah’s Ark Ministries seem to be a confident bunch about their finding there are many sceptics too. Biologist Todd Wood feels that radiocarbon dating of wood reflect less time than the materials actual timeframe. “Radiocarbon dating estimates the ages of organic objects by measuring the radioisotope carbon 14, which is known to decay at a set rate over time. The method is generally thought to reach its limit with objects about 60,000 years old. Earth is generally thought to be about four and a half billion years old.” Thus the wood samples are way too young to match with the time of the Great Flood. Another scholar Jack Sasson feels that Noah’s Ark never landed on Mount Ararat as there is no geological evidence of the Great Flood in Turkey or near the foothills of Mount Ararat. So may be the researchers have spent their time in a wrong mountain in Turkey. Some even feel there was no truth in the Noah’s Ark at all and it was an allegory intended to refrain humans from performing wicked acts.

Portrait of How Noah's Ark might have looked

Whatever be the view of the sceptics the Turkish government has already applied to the UN to convert the spot into UNESCO World Heritage site. Such a designation is only given to places that have special cultural, historical or physical significance.

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Some Mysteries Surrounding Bog Bodies Revealed

Bog bodies are the naturally preserved hum corpses that were found in the quagmire or mire of Northern Europe. They are different from other ancient human remains, the bog bodies have their skin and internal organs intact due to the unusual conditions of the areas they were buried in. The bogs (or mires) have low temperature, acidic water, lack of oxygen and scarcity of microbial which have led to their good condition as well as tanning of skin. The bog bodies started to be discovered in various parts of UK, Ireland and surrounding areas as early as 1800s. In 1965 German scientist Dr. Alfred Dieck catalogued the presence of nearly 1,850 such bodies in Northern Europe.

Tulland Man: A Bog Body

There have been various tales created by people ever since the first discoveries of the bog bodies. Their neatly arranged hair and other well preserved body parts coupled with signs of cruelty on their bodies have made people wonder about the real story. While some feel that the most feared or loathed people were sacrificed by their near ones during their near ones to please the Gods during the Iron Age others feel they died of natural causes and were buried in this forbidden place. But the advent of technology has meant there are more ways to find out the truth. Technologies such as radio carbon dating, CT scans and three dimensional imaging have led to new conceptions.

Another Danish Bog Body

  • Tacitus’s Records: In the past the researchers had resorted to historical accounts from the Roman historian Tacitus of the first century A.D. According to Tacitus, the Germans killed the cowards and homosexuals and threw their bodies in the bogs. Similarly, the bog bodies were interpreted as bodies of people in disgrace who were tortured, disgraced and buried in the bogs instead of cremation which was an Iron Age custom.
  • Winderby Girl: Winderby Girl which was discovered in Northern Germany in 1952 was supposed to be an adultress whose head had been shaved in a similar manner described by Tacitus. Researchers also speculated that she might have been blindfolded and drowned in the bog. Another body found close by was identified as her lover. But tests conducted later concluded that the Winderby Girl was actually a young man and that he lived many centuries (as seen by the radio carbon dating results). Further, the researchers feel that the hair of this bog body might have been lost due to careless digging. The bones and growth interruptions indicated that the young man was malnourished and died of natural causes.
  • Picture of Winderby Girl

  • Grauballe Man: Grauballe Man which was discovered northwest of Copenhagen in 1952 had been labelled as tortured and mutilated before death. After thorough forensic investigations it as revealed that the signs of torture and mutilation had been inflicted upon the bog body many centuries after its death. X-rays of the body revealed that the bones were demineralised by acidic bog waters and it looked like glass. CT scans have also revealed that the skull of the Grauballe Man was fractured by the pressure caused when a boy wearing clogs accidentally stepped on it. The broken legs of the body was caused due to the acidic environment of the bog and due to a vicious blow to force him to kneel, as previously felt by some scholars.
  • Grauballe Man Lying in His Death Bed

  • Clonycavan Man: This bog body on the otherhand bears witness to the so called human sacrifices to suffice Gods. The man once stood six feet and four inches tall, but only his torso and arms were found. Wounds on the arms suggest that he had fended off knife stabs before being fatally stabbed in the heart. This body has been badly mutilated with its nipples cut, upper arm pierced and twisted hazel inserted into the holes.

As most of these bog bodies were buried in nearby locations thus there is also a theory that they were sacrificed to please the Gods. According to the ancient texts sacrificing “high-ranking hostages taken to force rebellious lords into obedience, pretenders to the throne, or even the failed kings themselves” was a common practice. Each injury suffered honoured different aspects of the goddess such as sovereignty, fertility, and war.

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Medieval Historical Mystery still Wages on: Who was Robin Hood?

The tale of Robin Hood and his Merry Men has caught on the imagination of many generations. There are many reasons to like the story of this “Lincoln green clad outlaw”; it has excitement, love, violence, philanthropy and many other elements. But in the recent past historians are trying to find the exact truth of this story with their intensive research. They have various opinions.

Robin Hood Statue Standing Tall in Nottingham

To start off with, most of the experts have sighted stark changes in the story from its earliest form to the later versions. In the earlier versions, there is no mention of his love with Maid Marion, nor are his acts of philanthropy so frequent. Except Friar Tuck, Little John, Will Scarlet and Much all the other members who formed the band of outlaws known as Merry Men are not even mentioned. Another discrepancy arises in terms of the dwelling place of Robin Hood. Researchers are still not sure whether Robin Hood really lived in the Forests of Sherwood or Barnsdale. So there have been significant additions to the story over the years and this has led to rising interest into the reality of Robin Hood.

In the month of April this year a grave half covered in moss having no headstone was revealed in Warwickshire and a historian David Baldwin claims it to be the final resting place of folklore hero Robin Hood. It is the grave of a 13th century farmer who had committed burglaries, murder and arson. The name of this outlaw was Roger Godberd. David Baldwin feels Godberd formed the basis of Robin Hood’s legend.  The list of crimes committed by Godberd make him an ideal match for Robin Hood as described in the legend.

Roger Godberd's stone coffin in Loxley, Warwickshire

Roger Godberd was a real life outlaw who used to rob the rich and was captured by the Sheriff of Nottingham and thrown into a dungeon at the Nottingham Castle. He also led a band of men who ambushed the wealthy travellers across the Sherwood Forest. Similar to Robin Hood, Godberd also had a friendly knight helping him evade law. All these evidences have been gathered from the medieval court papers.

According to the research Godberd lived during the 1230s to 1290s and committed an array of crimes across the country. He was the leader of a band of outlaws who assaulted, robbed and even murdered churchmen and travellers. Thus Godberd was charged with burglaries, arson and murder. Further the documents also reveal that Godberd was also accused of poaching deer in the Sherwood Forest along with his companion Walter Devyas (Little John according to the legend).

Pictorial Representation of Robin Hood - The Prince of Thieves

There have also been many conflicting opinions about the reason for Robin Hood becoming an outlaw. According to Walter Bower, one of the earliest researchers into Robin Hood mystery, Robin Hood was forced into outlawry after being involved in 1260s Simon De Montfort’s Rebellion. Roger Godberd was one of the close supporters of Simon De Montfort. He was captured in the early 1270s and served a prison term before being pardoned at his trial at the Tower of London. Moreover, according to the written text of the times Roger Godberd was equally popular among the poor as Robin Hood.

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Is there Life Outside Earth?

If you see numerous Hollywood movies such as Independence Day, Star Wars, etc. you would be thinking life outside our great planet Earth is an improbable thing which just appears in work of fiction. But this isn’t a reality. UFO sightings and stories of extraterrestrial beings boarding down from their space shuttles are not a thing of today. Delve deep into the origins of many renowned civilizations such as Egyptian and Indus valley and you will get enough traces of extraterrestrial beings visiting Earth on high frequency during those times. One line of scientists has also predicted that all races baring the African blacks are ancestors of beings from a world far from ours. They have sighted a simple example. According to their studies evolution of apes was a definite happening, but then apes do not have sharp nose or sharp features?

Many rock inscriptions and even paintings on the pyramids of ancient Egypt have figures drawn which closely resemble to the oval UFO. Some of them also show beings that are definitely not humans working side by side with the workers while the Pyramids were being built. Indeed many historians have still not found the sudden rise and rapid development of the Egyptian culture.

If these were traces of the past, then in the modern times reports of UFO sightings in various parts of the world bear testimony to the presence of extraterrestrial beings in the present times. Though NASA and other national security agencies have kept on denying the UFO landings yet there are many people ready to stand evidence to what they have seen. There are even some videos which show the flying saucers. Let us see through one recent happening. The date of the sighting was January 8, 2008 and the location was Stephenville, Texas in the US. Dozens of people in the locality including one of the pilots reported to have seen “large silent object with bright lights flying low and fast”. Some even said that a fighter jet was chasing them. The locals are of the belief that the flying was definitely faster and lower to ground then an airplane. The configuration of lights in the object also changed configuration unlike a plane. But the NASA officials will blow away this incident as merely a made up story or give a complex scientific explanation for it. But for how long would they hide that we are not alone in this Universe?


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How Did Hitler Die?

Adolf Hitler who has become synonymous with tyranny not only lived a controversial life but there are many mysteries surrounding his death too. The common story behind the death of this tyrant is that on 30 April, 1945 when the Russian army was closing in on the bunker where the Fuhrer (Adolph Hitler took refuge) Hitler committed suicide by ingesting poison as well as shooting himself. Hitler and his girlfriend Eva Braun had lived together in the bunker like a husband and wife in the last 40 hours of Hitler’s tyrannical life. On 30 April morning Hitler got news that the Soviet troops were a mere 500 metres from the bunker and there was heavy bombardment from the enemy troops overhead. Around 1 pm that day Hitler granted Helmut Weidling (commander of the Berlin Defence Area) the permission to break out that night. Then he had lunch with his two secretaries, Eva Braun and his personal cook. After that Eva and the Fuhrer said their personal farewells to all the other occupants of the bunker. At around 2:30 pm both of them locked themselves in Hitler’s personal study and about one hour later there was a loud gun shot heard. When the room was open both Hitler and Eva were found dead.

Death Mystery of Adolf Hitler

This was a short and simple story, but the mysteries piled up later. When the Soviet troops entered the bunker they found four fully burnt bodies. The soldiers were able to decipher the bodies of Hitler and Eva Braun and buried them. But some of the Soviet intelligence officers later reported that the body might of the body double of Hitler, thus the buried bodies were unearthed and taken to forensic lab. After detailed testing of the dental structure of Hitler it was confirmed that the Fuhrer was indeed dead.

Some expressed doubts on the nature of Hitler’s death. If he had shot himself on the head why did he take the poison? In this regard the critics feel that Hitler who had killed thousands of people was himself afraid of the death pain. Thus he shot himself just after taking the poison to reduce the pain of death.

As the Hitler death mystery gathered pace the body of Hitler was presented to the public in Moscow in 2000. Some of the American researchers carried out DNA testing of the skull of Hitler. There was a staggering fact that came out of the tests. The skull that was so long thought to be Hitler’s was in reality that of a woman. There was a hole in the similar to a bullet hole, but the bone was very thin and the satures where the skull plates came together revealed that the person was below 40 years of age. In the records it is revealed that Hitler died at the age of 56. Thus the body revealed before the public was not that of Hitler for sure.

Another group of researchers found some astonishing facts, according to them Hitler fled from the bunker seeing the approach of the Soviet forces. He made his way through the tunnels to reach the seas. From there he boarded a ship to set sail for Argentina. The researchers also feel that the bombing on the bunker was carried out by the Nazi airplanes to make the world believe that Adolf Hitler was dead. The news of Hitler’s suicide would glorify him. In Argentina he stayed hidden from the eyes of the world. As testified by one of the physicians who attended Hitler in his death bed, he had become lean and suffered from multiple diseases. He died of age in  a small town in Argentina.

Like many other eminent leaders the death of Hitler is as much mystified as his life. There have been and will be many speculations regarding the death of this feared leader.

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